Homicide is killing a person by an "act or omission," according to NOLO online legal dictionary. Criminal homicide is intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, or with extreme negligence to a human life resulting in death. Murder is killing by a sane person, with intent or malice aforethought, and with no legal reason or authority. Murder and manslaughter are criminal homicide. Homicide may be noncriminal as the result of war or death sentence by a court. Killing may be legally defensible in self-defense or to prevent a violent felony.
First degree murder is the intentional killing of another person with presumed malice, involving torture, kidnapping, poison, lying in wait, killing a law enforcement officer or prison guard, with or without premeditation. A killing or accidental death during a dangerous felony may be charged as a first-degree murder. Second degree murder is not premeditated, from an assault in which death was a distinct possibility. Felony murder is a killing during specified crimes. Murder during a dangerous felony, even if the felon is not the killer, such as the getaway driver, may be charged with first-degree murder. Definitions vary by state.
Murder in other countries
England death resulting from a felony, such as robbery or rape, is defined as murder. European civil law places
emphasis on circumstances and distinguishes between intentional, reckless, negligent,
and provoked murders. Death by bodily injury or negligence are penalized. Killers are classified by their use of deadly weapons.
Unjustified killings are homicides
but penalties depend on circumstances. European codes acquit mercy
killings. The Netherlands provides immunity for physicians
assisting with mercy killings. Italy mitigates punishment if the killer acted in passion or to
avenge their honor. Japan's harshest penalties
are reserved for the murder of a descendent. Islamic law makes no distinction between civil and criminal law. The family of the victim, or a proxy, are allowed to kill
the murderer or accept compensation, from the killer or their
family. Financial compensation and an act of contrition are required even for accidental death.
Homicide is a leading cause of death for African-American
15 - 24 years . For other races of the same age, it is the second leading cause of death. For every violent death,
there are 100 nonfatal injuries caused by violence. A National Crime Survey Report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, (NCJ-111456), 1988.
The Violence Policy Center (VPC) estimates more than 1,100 Americans died in murder-suicides in 2007 from high-profile mass shootings, such as the April 16, 2007, Virginia Tech massacre and familial shootings of spouses and children. At least 554 Americans died in murder-suicides during the first six months of 2007. Of the 554 murder-suicide deaths, 234 were suicides and 320 were homicides. Ninety-five percent of murder-suicides were committed by men. Nine murder-suicide events occurred in the US each week during the study. Seventy-three percent of all murder-suicides involve an intimate partner. Of these, 94 percent were females killed by their their partners. Most murder-suicides occurred in the home (75%), with 88.5% involving a firearm. American Roulette: Murder-Suicide in the US (pdf). VPC used a clipping service to collect every reported murder-suicide in the US from January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2007.
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control --
Since the 1980s, CDC has focused on violence and suicide prevention.
CDC's Division of Violence Prevention priorities are youth
violence, intimate violence, suicide, and firearm injuries. The CDC created this free course for everyone interested in learning about violence prevention, the burden violence places on our society, and effective prevention efforts. This free course is CDC approved for continuing education credits. It takes 75-90 minutes to complete. The course features videos, animation, and interactive exercises. CDC encourages partners and grantees to experience this interactive training.
Stigmatized properties are psychologically impacted houses. To some stigmatized houses are a fascinating. conversation piece. Or they use the stigma to negotiate a lower price. One man learned his own home was the location of multiple murder after his gardener mentioned it.
Most Wanted Takes Credit for a Killing -- Mazariego-Molina's
family contends he was the victim of vigilante justice, encouraged
by perhaps intentionally erroneous information from the LA
Sheriff's Department transmitted by a national television broadcast.
Dyke and Karen Rhoads were found dead after a morning fire, stabbed over 50 times. Herb Whitlock, a drug dealer and construction worker, and Randy Steidl, a construction worker, were convicted. Prosecutors contended the motive was a drug deal. In 1999, David Protess a Northwestern University professor assigned students the case to re-investigate.
Lopatka, 35, an Internet entrepreneur, left her Maryland home for North
Carolina, in October 1998, to willingly be sexually
tortured to death by a stranger she met on the Internet. She left a note to her husband
that she would not be returning and
was murdered three days later. In January 2000, Robert (Bobby) Glass, 45, a computer analyst,
pleaded guilty to voluntary manslaughter and six counts of second-degree sexual exploitation of a minor, from the pornography on his computer. In February 2002, two weeks before his release date, he had a fatal heart attack.
Murder -- In one Los Angeles County house,
on July 2002: four people from one family were murdered, Miguel Ruiz, 38, his
wife Maritza Trejo, his grandmother Ana Luisa Martinez, and
his daughter, 8, were tortured, sexually assaulted and murdered. Alfonso Ignacio Morales was convicted.
Tookie Williams, cofounder of the Crips, was convicted of four murders committed during robberies, sentenced to death, and executed. He authored several books, anti-gang and anti-violence literature and children's books.